The Hawaiian Islands were formed by a volcanic hotspot, an upwelling magma plume, which creates new islands as the Pacific plate moves over them.
What is the relationship between Hawaiian volcanoes and the Hawaiian Emperor Seamount Range?
Volcano ages are consistently younger toward the southeast, and the bend in the range separates the Old Emperor Seamount Range from the Younger Hawaiian Ridge. The oldest dated volcano near the northern end of the Emperor’s Seamount Range is 81 million years old.
Under which Hawaiian island is the hotspot?
the big island of hawaii
Today, the Big Island of Hawaii sits above the hotspot and has the only active volcanoes in this group of islands. The Konala, Hualaiai, Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes have built the island over the past 500,000 years.
How do hotspots and plate tectonics theory explain the different ages of the Hawaiian Islands?
How do hotspots and plate tectonics theory explain the fact that the Hawaiian Islands vary in age? In the case of the Hawaiian Islands, as the Pacific Plate moved over a hotspot, associated igneous activity produced a chain of five major volcanoes. The oldest of the Hawaiian Islands is Kauai.
What happens to volcanic islands that are no longer above the hotspot?
Without any source of heat, the volcano dies out and cools. This cooling makes the rock of the volcano and the tectonic plate denser. Over time, the dense rock sinks and erodes. A new active volcano is growing over the hotspot, creating a continuous cycle of volcanism.
Where is the hot spot in Hawaii?
Hotspot plume dynamics and tectonic migration The Hawaiian hotspot is now located beneath the island of Hawaii at the southeast end of the Hawaiian-Emperor Range.
What are hotspots and what do they produce?
A hotspot is an area on Earth above a mantle plume or an area below the Earth’s rocky outer layer, called the crust, where magma is hotter than the surrounding magma. The magma plume causes melting and thinning of the rocky crust and widespread volcanic activity.
Thereafter, northwesterly plate movement prevailed, causing the Hawaiian Ridge to form “downstream” of the hotspot. Hawaiian hotspot: A cross-sectional view along the Hawaiian island chain showing the inferred mantle plume that fed the Hawaiian hotspot on the Pacific Plate.
Is there a hotspot under the Hawaiian Islands?
Updated September 6, 2018. Beneath the Hawaiian Islands there is a volcanic “hot spot”, a hole in the earth’s crust that allows lava to surface and layer. Over millions of years, these layers form mountains of volcanic rock that eventually break through the surface of the Pacific Ocean, forming islands.
How did the Hawaiian island chain form?
In areas where the plates meet, sometimes volcanoes form. The Hawaiian Islands were formed by such a hot spot occurring in the middle of the Pacific plate. While the hot spot itself is stationary, the plate moves. So, as the plate moved over the hotspot, the string of islands that make up the Hawaiian Islands chain formed.
What was the first island to form above a hotspot?
Today, the Big Island of Hawaii sits above the same hotspot that produced the other islands. The first Hawaiian island to form above the hotspot was Kauai. It began to break through the surface of the Pacific Ocean about 4.6 million years ago. As the Pacific plate moved west, another island formed. That island was Oahu.